An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to Circa 2020 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15429 entries, 13282 authors and 1897 subjects. Updated: October 23, 2021

Browse by Entry Number 11700–11799

100 entries
  • 11700

An inquiry into the phenomena attending death by drowning and the means of promoting resuscitation in the apparently drowned. Report of a committee appointed by the Society, drawn up by Professor Schäfer, chairman of the committee.

London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1904.

The Schäfer method of artificial respiration. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: RESPIRATION › Artificial Respiration, Resuscitation
  • 11701

Adnotationes ad Rhinoplasticen. Commentatio quam consensu et auctoritate ....ad veniam legendi.

Dorpat (Tartu) Estonia: Typis vidua J.C. Schünmanni..., 1857.

Digital facsimile of the 1847 edition from dspace.ut.ee at this link. Szymanoski's dissertation was translated into German as "Zur plastischen Chirurgie," Vierteljahrschrift für die praktische Heilkunde, 60 (1858) 127-159. Blair O. Rogers, "J. von Szymanowski, His Life and Contribution to Plastic Surgery," Plast. & Reconstr. Surg,. 64, 465-78.



Subjects: PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY › Rhinoplasty
  • 11702

Handbuch der operativen Chirurgie von Julius von Szymanowski. Deutsche Ausgabe von dem Verfasser und ... C.W. F. Uhde. Ester Theil (All Published.)

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1870.

The author, who died of testicular cancer at the age of 39 two years before this posthumous publication, is one of the forgotten pioneers of plastic surgery. Many of the techniques described by later authors without citing sources are dealt with here for the first time. Dermatoplastic operations are described on over 300 pages of text with many meticulous, artistically high-quality images. The types of surgery for skin defects and substance loss are explained in great detail by very clear illustrations. Operations on cheek, eyelid and lip, nose, and ear are described in detail. The final part is the plastic surgery on the trunk, extremities and urogenital system. 

The preface to the work by Dr. Uhde explains the history of its publication. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY
  • 11703

Woman: Her rights, wrongs, privileges, and responsibilities . . . Her relations to man, physiological, social, moral, and intellectual: Her ability to fill the enlarged sphere of duties and privileges claimed for her: Her true position in education, professional life, employments, and wages considered. Woman suffrage, its folly and inexpediency, and the injury and deterioration which it would cause in her character shown . . .

Hartford, CT: L. Stebbins, 1869.

Also published in Cincinnati, Ohio by Howe's Subscription Book Concern, 1869.  The author, a physician and semi-popular writer, appears mainly to be writing in opposition to woman suffrage or to granting to women any form of social equality. Two years previously he issued a book (No. 7748) celebrating the achievements of women in the Civil War in the fields of nursing, supply and sanitary organiztion. Apparently he considered those roles approriate for women. The 1869 work contains unusual satirical plates. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About
  • 11704

Historia naturalis. 6 vols: Historiae naturalis de quadrupedibus; Historiae naturalis de avibus; Historiae naturalis de piscibus et cetis; Historiae naturalis de exanguibus aquaticis; Historiae naturalis de insectis, de serpentibus et draconbius; Historiae naturalis de serpentibus.

Frankfurt: Matthias Merian, 16501653.

The first 5 volumes were published in 1650; the last volume was published in 1653. This work, published in small folio format, includes 249 engraved plates and six elegant engraved title pages (4 resembling frontispieces, engraved by engraver and publisher Matthias Merian).



Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY, ZOOLOGY, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology, ZOOLOGY › Herpetology, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 11705

Sketches of the inhabitants, animal life and vegetation in the lowlands and high mountains of Ceylon: As well as of the submarine scenery near the coast taken from a diving bell.

Vienna: Printed for the author by Gerold & sold by Robert Hardwicke, London, 1867.

This work was illustrated with 26 tinted lithographs of natives and scenery in Sri Lanka after drawings from nature by the author, of which four were colored reproductions of underwater scenes made by the author using a diving bell he commissioned for the purpose. The plates were captioned in German, English, and French. An edition in German was issued from Braunschweig in 1868. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Marine Biology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Sri Lanka, Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientsts
  • 11706

De' fenomeni della circolazione osservata nel giro universale de' vasi; de' fenomeni della circolazione languente; de' moti del sangue independenti dall'azione del cuore; e del pulsar delle arterie.

Modena: Presso la Societa' Tipografica, 1773.

In four memoirs on the dynamics of the circulatory system  resulting from 337 experiments recorded in this workSpallanzani studied the role of the circulation in every stage from embryo to adult, and it was through his researches on the vascular system in the umbilical cords of embryo chicks that he first established the existence of arteriovenous anastomoses in warm-blooded animals. He also investigated the effects on the circulatory system of growth, gravity, and the consequences of wounds, as well as the changes affected in the failing circulation of dying animals. He determined that the arterial pulse was causedb y lateral pressure upon the arterial wall from cardiac impulsions conveyed by the blood column.

Digital facsimile of the 1773 edition from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Translated into English as Experiments upon the circulation of the blood, throughout the vascular system: On languid circulation: On  the motion of the blood, independent of the action of the heart: And on the pulsations of the arteries. With notes, and a sketch of the literary life of the author. By J. Tourdes. Translated into English, and illustrated with additional notes by R. Hall. London, 1801. Digital facsimile of the English translation from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiovascular System
  • 11707

A history of respiration.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1964.


Subjects: RESPIRATION › History of Respiration
  • 11708

The growth of scientific physiology: Physiological method and the mechanist-vitalist controversy, illustrated by the problems of respiration and animal heat.

London: Hutchinson & Co., 1960.


Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY › History of Physiology, RESPIRATION › History of Respiration
  • 11709

Mémoires sur la respiration par Lazare Spallanzani, traduits en français, d'après son manuscrit inédit, par Jean Senebier.

Geneva: Chez J. J. Paschoud, 1803.

Spallanzani's experimental data laid the groundwork for modern conceptions of respiratory physiology. In concluding that the blood transported carbon dioxide as a product of tissue oxidation, Spallanzani discovered parenchymatous respiration--usually accredited to the biochemist Liebig half a century later. Spallanzani demonstrated that the tissues consume oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 11710

Dell' azione del cuore ne' vasi sanguigni nuove osservasioni.

[No Place Identified, but] Modena: [No publisher identified], 1768.

In this response to Haller's Deux mémoires sur le mouvement du sang (1756) (No. 11607) Spallanzani outlined his own findings on the action of the heart upon the blood vessels. "Haller's microscopic observations of blood movements had been made by refracted light on midium-sized vessels in the isolated mesontery of the frog. Splallanzani, using P. Lyonet's novel dissecting apparatus, conducted his observations mostly in a darkened room with reflected light from sunbeams impinging upon exposed parts of the aquatic salamander. He systematically noted now the cardiac systolic force motivated the blood circulation. The rhythmic inequality of blood flow in the aorta and large vessels disappeared in medium and small arteries, becoming regular and uniform. The velocity diminished in the smaller vessels, but sinuosities did not retard the flow. In the smallest vessels, individual red corpuscles negoiated acute angles and folds by elastically changing shape. The blood velocity in the venous sytem increased as the caliber of the vessels enlarged. Haller responed to the many amplifications and corrections of his work by securing Spallanzati's election to the Royal Society of Sciences of Gottingen" (Dolman, DSB 12, 553).

 Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
  • 11711

Aphorismi de cognoscendis et curandis febribus.

Vienna: Typis Josephi Nobils de Kurzbek, 1786.

Stoll was one of the few physicians of the Viennese school who supported Auenbrugger's views on percussion. In this treatise on fevers Stoll referred favorably to the practice, and it is thought that Corvisart became familiar with the procedure when he translated this work into French. Corvisart's edition of Stoll appeared eleven years later as Aphorismes sur la connaissance et la curation des fievres (Paris, 1797).

Digital facsimile of the 1786 edition from Google Books at this link. Digital facsimile of the 1797 edition from wellcomecollection.org at this link.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE, Medicine: General Works, PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS › Percussion
  • 11712

Thomas Sydenham's observationes medicae (London, 1676) and his Medical observations (Manuscript 572 of the Royal College of Physicians of London), with new transcripts of related Locke MSS in the Bodleian Library. Edited by G. G. Meynell.

Folkestone, Kent, England: Winterdown Books, 1991.

Limited to 200 copies.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE
  • 11713

Dissertatio de structura et motu musculari.

London: Samuel Richardson, 1738.

This was the text of the first Croonian Lecture at the Royal Society. In it Stuart promoted a strictly hydraulic iatromechanism as a theory of muscular motion. This work was translated into English in 1739. Digital facsimile of the 1738 edition from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Biomechanics, PHYSIOLOGY › Biophysics
  • 11714

Heart disease and industry with particular reference to workmen's compensation cases.

New York: Grune & Stratton, 1954.

"The first monograph on the subject" (W. Bruce Fye).



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Workmen's Compensation, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE
  • 11715

Gesammelte Beiträge zur Pathologie und Physiologie. 3 vols.

Berlin: August Hirschwald, 18711878.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, PATHOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 11716

Die angeborenen Herzkrankheiten.

Vienna: Alfred Hölder, 1898.

The first systematic treatise on congenital heart defects. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 11717

Traité de la sangsue médicinale.

Paris: Chez H. Nicolle, 1809.

A 585-page treatise on this later-debunked therapy published around the time of its greatest vogue. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: THERAPEUTICS › Bloodletting
  • 11718

Variarum observationum liber.

London: prostant apud Robertum Scott Bibliopolam, 1685.

Vossius, a Dutch scholar and manuscript collector, was one of the first European writers to suggest that the Chinese had anticipated William Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood. In his chapter on Chinese medicine, De artibus et scientiis Sinarum, Vossius stated that the Chinese had known about the circulation of the blood for over 4,000 years, citing relevant Chinese medical texts, such as the Huang ti nei ching, that had recently been translated into European languages. Vossius also alluded to Harvey's European precursors, including Cesalpino, Paolo Sarpi, and 'an Englishman"; this last was probably Walter Warner, one of the first Englishmen to support Harvey's theory and give an acount of it in the vernacular. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Anatomy of the Heart & Circulatory System, Chinese Medicine › History of Chinese Medicine
  • 11719

Sendschreiben von den Wirkungen des Kafeetranks.

Quedlinburg: Gottfried Heinrich Schwan, 1752.

Discussing the consumption and reception of coffee from Britain to Turkey, Knoll dismissed criticisms of coffee, including that it reduced beauty and virility, or that it was contrary to Islam, instead promoting the merits of the drink. He recommended the medicinal use of coffee for treatment of migraines, deafness, and scurvy, its benefits being derived supposedly from being both acidic and alkaline. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link. Knoll's pamphlet was also published in French by the same publisher in the same year as Lettre à un ami sur les operations du caffé.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Headache › Migraine, NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Scurvy, OTOLOGY › Deafness, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Coffee
  • 11720

Coffee: A bibliography. A guide to the literature on coffee. 2 vols.

London: Hünersdorff , 2002.

"...listing over 15,000 imprints relating to every aspect of coffee from the past to the present. The principal writings on coffee have been identified and described in light of available source material. Represented are authors treating the cultivation, production, preparation and consumption of coffee, its economic, social and cultural significance, medical and chemical uses as a drug, and its falsifications and substitutes. The individual coffee content of the titles listed varies from monographs to works containing a chapter, or an extended reference. The term 'Coffee-house also illustrates its social and cultural impact on the period" (publisher). 



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Coffee
  • 11721

Die Messung des Pulses und des Blutdrucks am Menschen.

Berlin: August Hirschwald, 1880.

Probably the first book published on the messurement blood pressure in mankind. Mostly concerned with normal physiologic conditions, with a small section on fluctuations in illness. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Hypertension (High Blood Pressure), CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Sphygmogram, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Sphygmomanometer
  • 11722

All about coffee.

New York: The Tea and Coffee Trade Journal Company, 1922.

Covers the historical, technical, scientific, commercial, social and artistic dimensions of coffee. Second edition, 1935.  Digital facsimile of the 1922 edition from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Coffee
  • 11723

On blood-letting: An account of the curative effects of the abstraction of blood; with rules for employing both local and general blood-letting in the treatment of diseases.

London: J.-B. Baillière, 1835.

Wardrop "promoted blood-letting in an era when a few physicians, notably Pierre Louis of Paris, were discouraging the therapeutic approach" (W. Bruce Fye, "James Wardrop," Profiles in cardiology, 91.) Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: THERAPEUTICS › Bloodletting
  • 11724

Physical education and the preservation of health.

Boston: William D. Ticknor, 1846.

An expanded version of a lecture first delivered and published as a pamphlet in 1830. This is the first edition in book form, and one of the first American works on the value of exercise for the preservation of health. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: PHYSICAL MEDICINE / REHABILITATION › Exercise / Training / Fitness, Sports Medicine
  • 11725

Western Reserve University centennial history of the School of medicine.

Cleveland, OH: Western Reserve University Press, 1946.


Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Ohio
  • 11726

The first medical college in Vermont: Castleton, 1818-1862.

Montpelier, VT: Vermont Historical Society, 1949.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Vermont
  • 11727

Etherization: With surgical remarks.

Boston: William D. Ticknor and Co., 1848.

Warren performed the first surgical operation under anesthesia at Massachusetts General Hospital on October 16, 1846. This work presents his experience with anesthesia in the year following. Digital facsimile from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA › Ether
  • 11728

A letter to the Hon. Isaac Parker, chief justice of the Supreme court of the state of Massachusetts, containing remarks on the dislocation of the hip joint, occasioned by the publication of a trial which took place at Machias, in the state of Maine, June, 1824. By John C. Warren. With an appendix of documents from the trial necessary to illustrate the history of the case.

Cambridge, MA: Printed by Hilliard and Metcalf, 1826.

This work, illustrated with 5 plates, contains several clear and minute descriptions of dislocation of the hip joint. In the course of the monograph Warrenproved the possibility of a type of dislocation that was denied by Astley Cooper, yet observed by several distinguished surgeons. Warren went to the trouble of publishing this monograph, not to disprove Astley Cooper, but to present his professional opinion in a malpractice case. 

"After realizing that his hip would never be right again, Charles Lowell decided to sue his local physicians (disregarding multiple doctors’ pleas to reconsider). He accused Hawkes of neglect and failing to initially reduce the dislocation, while he brought Faxon up on charges for having tried to manipulate the dislocation without the necessary medical training. Prior to 1987, defendants were not permitted to testify on their own behalf, and if Faxon had not been likewise accused, Hawkes could have easily put him on the stand to protect him as he was the only other medical practitioner present at the time of the incident (Harvey 1991, 175). The court case Lowell vs. Faxon and Hawkes was brought to trial on three occasions, and no concrete verdict was ever returned. The first trial, held in June of 1822 at the Superior Court for Washington County, Maine under Justice David Perham ruled in Lowell’s favor. The Judge charged Faxon and Hawkes $1962, who promptly appealed the case and brought it to the Supreme Court at Machias. The second trial, overseen by Chief Justice Prentiss Mellen, took place three months later in September of 1822. The jury, however, was highly influenced by outside politics not directly associated with case itself, and was unable to come to any agreement. They were divided, not only by the loyalties and biases between Massachusetts and Maine (the later had only seceded in 1820), but also on a more micro scale between Washington County in northern Maine and the surrounding areas (Spaulding 1910, 9). The doctors in this trial can be clearly grouped into opposing sides: all Bostonian doctors in favor of the plaintiff; all doctors from Maine supporting the defense. Amongst the smaller sphere of Maine residents, players can likewise be separated: Hawkes from Eastport (to whom whose residents felt a great sense of loyalty), and Lowell from outside the County lines. Consequently, the case was brought to court a final time in June of 1824. Once again, however, it came to a stale mate, and Justice Nathan Weston decided that “the best thing for all parties was for the plaintiff to accept a non-suit and the defendant to take no costs' (Spaulding 1910, 23)." Nobody wins. (https://collections.countway.harvard.edu/onview/exhibits/show/lowellhip/overview).

 Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Malpractice, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Hip, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Maine
  • 11729

Lowell vs. Faxon and Hawkes: A celebrated malpractice suit in Maine.

Bull. Amer. Acad. Med., 11, 4-31, 1910.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Malpractice, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Hip
  • 11730

Report of the trial of an action: Charles Lowell against John Faxon and Micajah Hawks, doctors of medicine, defendants, for malpractice in the capacity of physicians and surgeons: At the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, holden at Machias for the county of Washington, June term, 1824, before the Hon. Nathan Weston, Jun., justice of the court.

Portland, ME: Printed for J. Adams, 1825.

A detailed narrative on the trial based on the transcript. Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Malpractice, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Hip, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Maine
  • 11731

Carl Weigert Gesammelte Abhandlungen unter Mitwirkung von Ludwig Edinger und Paul Ehrlich. Herausgegeben und Eingeleitet von Robert Rieder. 2 vols.

Berlin: Julius Springer, 1906.


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Myocardial Infarction, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, PATHOLOGY
  • 11732

Die Arrhythmie, als Austruck bestimmter Funktionsstörungen der Herzens: Eine physiologische-klinische Studie.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1903.

This monograph contains Wenckebach's obserations on the physiological bases of arrhythmias, along with accounts of their clinical manifestations. Wenckbach was the first to describe extracystoles in man, demonstrating independently of Cushny (1906) that these ineffectual contractions were premature beats. His name is commemorated in the expression "Wenckebachs periods," denoting periodic dropped beats when a conduction defect exists.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 11733

The works of Robert Whytt, M.D. Late physician to his Majesty.... Published by his son.

Edinburgh: T. Becket & London: T. Becket & P. A. De Hondt, 1768.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, Neurophysiology, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision, PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses
  • 11734

A treatise on the motive powers which produce the circulation of the blood.

New York & London: Wiley and Putnam, 1846.

The author was an American women's rights activist and educator rather than a physician or physiologist. Digital facsimile from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 11735

Willis's Oxford casebook (1650-52) edited by Kenneth Dewhurst.

Oxford: Sanford Publications, 1981.


Subjects: NEUROLOGY
  • 11736

Thomas Willis's Oxford lectures. Edited by Kenneth Dewhurst.

Oxford: Sandford Publications, 1980.

A biographical introduction proceeds Dewhurst's edition of John Locke's transcripts of Willis's lectures from 1663-64 (Bodleian MS Locke f19) and Richard Lower's notes from the 1661-62 lectures in the Robert Boyle papers in the Royal Society.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY
  • 11737

"A study of the malformations, variations, and anomalies of the circulatory apparatus in man," with a brief consideration of some of the principles governing their production.

Ann. Anat. Surg., 6, 206-215, 255-264; 7, 13-22, 91-95, 146-154, 18821883.

A pioneering study of the embryology of the cardiovascular system and its relationship to congenital heart disease.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, EMBRYOLOGY, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 11738

The miscellaneous tracts of the late William Withering. To which is prefixed a memoir of his life, character and writings. 2 vols.

London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1822.

Withering's collected works, with the exception of his A botanical arrangement of all the the vegetables naturally growing in the Great Britain. Includes the second edition of his monograph on the foxglove. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Digitalis
  • 11739

In Flanders fields and other poems by John McCrae. With an essay in character by Sir Andrew MacPhail.

New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1919.

McCrae's poem, In Flanders Fields, was among the most popular poems of World War I. He was inspired to write it on May 3, 1915, after presiding over the funeral of friend and fellow soldier Lieutenant Alexis Helmer, who died in the Second Battle of Ypres

In Flanders Fields was one of the most quoted poems from the war. As a result of its popularity, parts of the poem were used in efforts and appeals to recruit soldiers and raise money selling war bonds. Its references to the red poppies that grew over the graves of fallen soldiers resulted in the remembrance poppy becoming one of the world's most recognized memorial symbols for soldiers who have died in conflict. The poem and poppy are prominent Remembrance Day symbols throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, particularly in Canada, where "In Flanders Fields" is one of the nation's best-known literary works. 

A Canadian, McCrae received his M.D. from the University of Toronto in 1898. The following year he spent several months at Johns Hopkins Hospital, where his older brother Thomas was an assistant resident physician on Osler's medical service. In July 1914 McCrae sailed from Canada to France to serve as a medical officer. In 1918, while commanding the McGill Hospital at Boulogne, he died of pneumonia and meningitis.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Canada, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology › Poetry
  • 11740

Research and discovery in medicine: Contributions from Johns Hopkins.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981.

Essays on the history of pioneering clinical research at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.



Subjects: U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Maryland
  • 11741

Index testarum conchyliorum quae adservantur in Museo Nicolai Gualtieri ... et methodice distributae exhibentur tabulae CX.

Florence: Caietani Albizzini, 1742.

The beautiful catalogue of the shell collection formed by Gualtieri, physician to Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany in his "museum."  Many of the shells are depicted standing on their apices, and are depicted from two sides, showing the complete surface. Gualtieri's collection is preserved in the Museo Storia Naturale in Pisa.



Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern, ZOOLOGY › Malacology
  • 11742

[Vols I and II:] Figures of non-descript shells collected in the different voyages to the South Seas since the year 1764 ... [Vols III and IV:] The universal conchologist, exhibiting the figure of every known shell, accurately drawn and painted after nature: With a new systematic arrangement by the author.... 4 vols.

London: Sold at his house no. 16 Great Marlborough Street, 17841812.

"The first two volumes, devoted to shells of the South Seas, were originally published as a separate work in 1784. Martyn then extended the work to four volumes with an additional 80 plates. ‘From the introduction to The universal conchologist we learn that it was 'to commence with the figures of shells (most of them rare and nondescript) which have been collected by several officers of the shipsunder the command of Captain Byron, Wallis, Cook, and others made to the South Sea' ... When the Resolution and the Discovery returned from the third and last voyage in 1780 [the dealer] Humphrey purchased some more shells, but the bulk of the conchological spoils went this time to Thomas Martyn, a knowledgeable dealer, versatile writer and gifted artist ... Unlike Humphrey and other dealers who snapped up the Cook shells Thomas Martyn had more than a pecuniary interest in his purchases. Martyn’s reason for wanting to corner the market in South Seas shells was entirely praiseworthy; although he sold many of the shells he had bought, he illustrated the finest in The Universal Conchologist, his magnum opus [and] a work which, for beauty, has seldom been surpassed in the history of conchological iconography’ (Dance, A history of shell collecting).

"Martyn purchased shells brought back from Cook’s third voyage, although, as he wrote to Henry Seymer on 9 December 1780, ‘I have purchased, amounting to 400 gns, more than 2 thirds of the whole brought home, Nevertheless I do not abound either in the variety of the new or many duplicates of the known ones that are valuable’. As a result, he modified his project and instead of presenting two shells on each plate, presented only one but depicted in two different views. Besides the specimens deriving from Cook’s voyages, Martyn included specimens from the collections of the Duchess of Portland, the Countess of Bute, John Hunter, the Forsters, and others. The fine plates were drawn by Martyn and engraved and coloured by his 'Academy' of young men whom he had trained as natural history artists. The plates, each showing a single species in two positions, were engraved in soft aquatint and printed lightly inked, so that when hand-coloured they would resemble watercolours" (William P. Watson, Science, medicine and natural history books exhibited at the New York International Antiquarian Bookfair...2020).



Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY › Art & Natural History, ZOOLOGY › Malacology
  • 11743

A brief history of cocaine.

Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1998.

Second edition, 2006.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Cocaine
  • 11744

A history of cocaine: The mystery of coca Java and the Kew plant.

London: Royal Society of Medicine, 2003.

This work is not actually a "history", rather it contains translations, with commentary, of three late nineteenth and early twentieth century treatises on coca and cocaine, plus other documents. "An exploration of the important role of the Netherlands and Indonesia to the cocaine industry at the turn of the last century. It contains annotated translations of three rare, previously untranslated late-19th and early-20th century books on the chemistry, botany and economics of the cocaine industry. One of the translations deals entirely with the Indonesian cocaine trade and contains a detailed account of coca cultivation in Java. The other two translations include general histories of the industry but are written from different perspectives" (Publisher).



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Indonesia, PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Cocaine
  • 11745

Reading vampire gothic through blood: Bloodlines.

New York: Springer, 2014.


Subjects: LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology, THERAPEUTICS › Blood Transfusion › History of Blood Transfusion
  • 11746

Ruralia commoda.

Augsburg: Johann Schüssler, 1471.

The most famous medieval agricultural treatise, and, apart from the Bartholomaeus Anglicus's De proprietatibus rerum, the earliest non-classical work to deal with agriculture and viticulture. The author, a successful Bolognese attorney, retired to his estate in 1299 where he wrote this agricultural handbook, finished in 1305. The survival of 91 medieval Latin codices of Ruralia commoda confirm its wide distribution in the period before print. Nine Latin editions and three editions in German appeared in print before 1500. ISTC No. ic00965000. Digital facsimile from Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.



Subjects: Agriculture / Horticulture
  • 11747

Hortus Elthamensis seu plantarum rariorum quas in horto suo Elthami in cantio coluit vir ornatissimus et praestantissimus Jacobus Sherard, M. D. Soc. Reg. et Coll. Med. Lond. Soc. Guilielmi P.M. frater, delineationes et descriptiones quarum historia vel plane non, vel imperfecte a rei herbariae scriptoribus tradita fuit.

Sumptibus Auctoris, London: Sumptibus Auctoris, 1732.

Catalogue of the rare plants growing at Eltham, London, in the collection of James Sherard, who, after making a fortune as an apothecary, devoted himself to gardening and music. For this work Dillenius wrote the text and executed 324 plates. The book was described by Linnaeus, who spent a month with him at Oxford in 1736, and afterwards dedicated his Critica Botanica to him, as opus botanicum quo absolutius mundus non vidit, "a botanical work of which the world has not seen one more authoritative."   

"According to Blanche Henrey[10] it [Hortus Elthamensis] was "the most important book to be published in England during the eighteenth century on the plants growing in a private garden" and a major work for the pre-Linnaean taxonomy of South African plants, notably the succulents of the Cape Province. Dillenius' herbarium specimens from Eltham are preserved in the herbarium of the Oxford Botanical Garden." (Wikipedia article on James Sherard, accessed 2-2020).

Digital facsimile from Real Jardín Botánico at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 11748

De palpitationes, tremore, rigore, convulsione. Intreprete Nicolao Lauachio, medico Florentino.

Florence: Aurelius Pincius, 1536.

First separately published printed edition of Galen's writings on neuropathology. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System
  • 11749

Heart studies in Australia, with observations on aneurism of the aorta.

Melbourne, Australia: Published by the Author, 1873.

The first book on heart disease written by an Australian physician and published in Australia.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aneurysms, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart & Aorta, Diseases of, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia
  • 11750

Systematisches Handbuch der gerichtlichen Psychologie für Medicinalbeamte, Richter und Vertheidiger.

Leipzig: Otto Wiegand, 1835.

A comprehensive manual on forensic psychiatry, preceding Isaac Ray's book by three years. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Forensic Psychiatry
  • 11751

Crime and insanity in England. Volume one: The historical perspective. (All published.)

Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1968.


Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine) › History of Forensic Medicine , PSYCHIATRY › Forensic Psychiatry
  • 11752

Diseases of the heart and aorta.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1910.

The first comprehensive monograph on cardiology written and published in the United States. Hirschfelder interned under William Osler at Johns Hopkins, and became Hopkins's first full-time cardiologist. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • 11753

Outline of common skin diseases including eruptive fevers. Also diet plans for children in use in the Department of Pediatrics, the Johns Hopkins Hospital.

Student's Book Store, Baltimore, MD, 1915.

Gilchrist was the first professor to concentrate on dermatology at Johns Hopkins, joining the faculty in 1898. His guide to the common skin diseases, published for the use of medical students at Hopkins, was printed leaving the versos of its printed leaves blank so that students could add their own notes and photographs to the text. Six composite actual black & white photographs of skin diseases were produced, probably around the time of publication, "Illustrating Gilchrist's Outlines of Skin Diseases" so that students could tip them in to their copies. The contents of this book indicate that Gilchrist also devoted some of his attention to pediatrics.

Gilchrist also invented the Gilchrist Bandage, a sling designed to immobilize or fix the shoulder joint or upper arm. Gilchrist never authored a textbook, making this outline or syllabus, that circulated in manuscript from 1900 to 1915, his only publication in book form. Digital facsimile of the 1918 printing from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, PEDIATRICS, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Maryland
  • 11754

A practical treatise on the treatment of the diseases of the elephant, camel, and horned cattle, with instructions for preserving their efficiency.

Calcutta: W. Palmer, 1851.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 11755

Cattle plague: A history.

New York: Springer, 2003.

"Cattle Plague: A History is the most comprehensive general study of the history of cattle plague or rinderpest yet attempted, of which there has not been a book in English since 1866. With its stranglehold on the economy of Europe until the later 19th century, rinderpest has been the most neglected study in history. The most virulent and dreaded animal disease to affect Europe and Asia from ancient times with up to 95 percent mortality of affected cattle; in the 18th century it is estimated to have carried off more than 200 million head of cattle in Europe, exclusive of Siberia and Tartary. Germany alone lost 28 million between 1711 and 1865, 3 in every 4 animals dying. Following its introduction into Britain in 1745, the losses in 1745-57 were estimated at in excess of half a million head. Its introduction in 1865 with a dozen oxen led to the death, including those which were slaughtered, of 278,943 animals, some estimates putting the loss as high as 420,000, representing 7 per cent of the national herd; according to some affecting livestock farming and the meat trade for the next 25 years. It was responsible for a major panzootic in Africa at the turn of the 19th century, devastating domestic and wild animals alike and affecting the ecology of Africa to the present" (Publisher).



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology, VETERINARY MEDICINE › Epizootics, VETERINARY MEDICINE › History of Veterinary Medicine
  • 11756

The agricultural pests of India, and of eastern and southern Asia, vegetable and animal, injurious to man and his products.

London: Bernard Quaritch , 1887.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: Agriculture / Horticulture, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 11757

Notes on the influence exercised by trees in inducing rain and preserving moisture.

Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 15, 402448, 1849.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India
  • 11758

Medical hints to the people of India. Eminent medical men of Asia, Africa, Europe and America, who had advanced medical science; Compiled for the use of students and for the Vydians and Hakims of India.

Madras: Higginbotham & Co., 1875.

A compilation of biographical sketches of selected figures in medical history written by Balfour as Surgeon-General, Madras Medical Department, "for the hindu Vydian, for the muhammadan Hakim, and for the students of the several Medical Schools of British India, all of whom will wish to see an outline traced of the progress of medicine from the earliest times to the present day and learn something of the eminent men who have proceeded them -- Philosophers, Anatomists, Physicians and Surgeons--to whom medical science is indebted."  Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.



Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India
  • 11759

Report of the Select Committee of the House of Representatives ... legalizing the study of anatomy.

Boston: Dutton & Wentworth, Printers, 1831.

This was the first law passed in the United States consigning the bodies of those who died in workhouses, hospitals, and similar institutions, the bodies of whom were "unclaimed," to medical schools for dissection. "Such measures assured the 'respectable' classes that their graves would not be plundered to provision the dissecting table, while providing anatomists with a steady suppply of free cadavers, and rescuing the profession from the taint of association with unsavory lower-class body snatchers...." (Sappol, A traffic in dead bodies, 4). John Collins Warren spearheaded the effort to get this legislation passed.

Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Legislation, Biomedical, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Massachusetts
  • 11760

Address to the community, on the necessity of legalizing the study of anatomy. By order of the Massachusetts Medical Society.

Boston: Perkins & Marvin, 1829.

The petition to the Massachusetts legislature to legalize "the procuring of subjects for anatomical dissections" (from George Hayward's printed notice on the verso of the title page). Nine members of the Massachusetts Medical Society signed their names in type to this petition, including John Collins Warren, who was largely responsible for the passage of the Massachusetts Anatomy Act of 1831. (No. 11759). Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Legislation, Biomedical, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Massachusetts
  • 11761

The cattle plague; with office reports of the International Veterinary Comgresses, held in Hamburg, 1863, and in Vienna, 1865.

London: Robert Hardwicke, 1866.

"Druing the cattle plague crisis of 1865-66, Gamgee was one of the prtincipal witnesses called to give evidence by the Cattle Plague Commissioners and amongst the first to recommend a policy of restriction of movement and mass slaughter. He was also the first veterinary surgeon to successfully use the thermometer for clinical purposes, measuring body temperatures of animals in the incubative and clinical stages of cattle plague" (Hunter, Veterinary medicine: A guide to historical sources). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this liink.



Subjects: VETERINARY MEDICINE, VETERINARY MEDICINE › Epizootics
  • 11762

On a form of swine fever occurring in British East Africa (Kenya Colony).

J. Comparative Pathology and Therapeutics, 34, 159-191, 1921.

First description of African Swine Fever. Montgomery was "Veterinary Adviser to the Government of Uganda, formerly Veterinary Pathologist to the East Africa Protectorate."



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Kenya, VETERINARY MEDICINE, VETERINARY MEDICINE › Epizootics
  • 11763

The zoology of Captain Beechey's voyage; compiled from the collections and notes made by Captain Beechey, the officers and naturalist of the expedition, during a voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Straits performed in His Majesty's Ship Blossom, under the command of Captain F. W. Beechey...in the years 1825, 26, 27, and 28. By J. Richardson, N.A. Vigors, G.T. Lay, E.T. Bennett, Richard Owen, John E. Gray, Rev. W. Buckland, and G. B. Sowerby. Illustrated with upwards of fifty finely coloured plates by Sowerby.

London: Henry G. Bohn, 1839.

Includes 44 hand-colored plates engraved by J.C. Zeiter and Thomas Landseer after Edward Lear, J. D. C. Sowerby, and J. C. Zeitter,  four hand-colored engraved maps and plans (one folding) after E. Belcher. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists, ZOOLOGY
  • 11764

The botany of Captain Beechey's voyage; comprising an account of the plants collected by Messrs Lay and Collie, and other officers of the expedition during the voyage to the Pacific and Bering's Strait, performed in His Majesty's Ship Blossom, under the command of Captain F. W. Beechey...in the years 1825, 26, 27, and 28. By Sir William Jackson Hooker and G. A. Walker Arnott.

London: Henry G. Bohn, 1842.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 11765

Narrative of a voyage to the Pacific and Beering's strait, to co-operate with the polar expeditions: Performed in His Majesty's Ship Blossom, under the command of Captain F. W. Beechey ... in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28.

London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, 1831.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 11766

Congenital anaomies of the heart and great vessels. Clinicopathologic study of 132 ases.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1948.

An extensively illustrated pathological-anatomical and physiological presentation with an historical approach.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, CARDIOLOGY › Pediatric Cardiology
  • 11767

The first Internation Symposium on Cardiology in Aviation. Conducted at the School of Aviation Medicine 12-13 November 1959. USAF Aerospace Medical Center (ATC). Edited by Lawrence E. Lamb.

Brooks Air Force Base, Texas: USAF Aerospace Medical Center (ATC), 1960.


Subjects: AVIATION Medicine, CARDIOLOGY
  • 11768

Inside the space race: A space surgeon's diary.

Austin, TX: Synergy Books, 2006.


Subjects: AVIATION Medicine › Aerospace Medicine, AVIATION Medicine › History of Aviation / Aerospace Medicine, BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Autobiography
  • 11769

The emergence of ornithology as a scientific discipline.

Dordrecht & Boston: D. Reidel, 1982.


Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY › History of Natural History, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 11770

Bibliographie ornithologique française: [Vol.1:] Travaux publies en langue française et en latin en France et dans les Colonies Françaises de 1473 a 1944. [Vol. 2:] Abréviations des titres des publications périodiques cités dans la Bibliographie Ornithologique Française et Index méthodiques et systématiques. 2 vols.

Paris: Lechevalier, 19481949.


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 11771

Bird books and bird art: An outline of the literary history and iconography of descriptive ornithology, based principally on the collection of books containing plates with figures of birds and their eggs now in the University Library at Copenhagen and including a catalogue of these works.

Copenhagen: Levin & Munksgaard, 1938.

This bibliography is distinctive for its very detailed annotations.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, NATURAL HISTORY › Art & Natural History, NATURAL HISTORY › History of Natural History, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 11772

MykoLibri. Die Biliothek der Pilzbücher.

Hamburg: MykoLibri, 2006.


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, BOTANY › Cryptogams › Mycology, BOTANY › Cryptogams › Mycology › Ethnomycology, Mycology, Medical
  • 11773

Index litteraturae entomologicae serie I: Die Welt-Literatur über die gesamte Entomologie bis inklusive. Index litteraturae entomologicae series II: von 1864 bis 1900. 9 vols.

Berlin: W. Horn & Akademie der Lanwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, 19281975.

The first part, by Horn and Schenkling, was privately published by Horn in 4 vols., 1928-29. The second part, by Derksen and Göllner-Scheiding, was published by the Akademie der Lanwirtschafwissenschaften der DDR in 5 vols, 1963-75.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 11774

Outlines of entomology. Seventh edition.

Amsterdam: Springer-Science+Business Media, B.V., 1988.

Includes an outstanding analytical bibliography of the primary entomological literature.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 11775

Flower and fruit prints of the 18th and Early 19th centuries: Their history, makers and uses, with a catalogue raisonné of the works in which they are found.

Washington, DC: Published by the Author, 1938.


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Botany / Materia Medica, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration, BOTANY › Botanical Illustration › History of Botanical Illustration
  • 11776

Bibliographie der deutschen vogelkundlichen Literatur von 1480 bis 1850.

Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann Verlag, 2004.


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 11777

Die Werke der Maria Sibylle Merian: bibliographisch Zusammengestellt.

Meissen: [M. A. Pfeiffer], 1931.


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Individual Authors, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, NATURAL HISTORY › Illustration, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1500 - 1799, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 11778

Southern African botanical literature, 1600-1988.

Cape Town: South African Library, 1988.


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Botany / Materia Medica, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › South Africa
  • 11779

Vermium terrestrium et fluviatilium, seu animalium infusoriorum, helminthecorum, et testaceorum non marinorum, succincta historia. 2 vols.

Copenhagen & Leipzig: Heineck & Faber, 17731774.

In this work Müller arranged the Infusoria into genera and species for the first time. Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteria, Classification of, ZOOLOGY › Helminthology, ZOOLOGY › Protistology (formerly Protozoology)
  • 11780

Molecular Koch's postulates applied to microbial pathogenicity.

Rev. Infect. Dis., 10 (suppl.2) S274-276, 1988.

"Molecular Koch's postulates are a set of experimental criteria that must be satisfied to show that a gene found in a pathogenic microorganism encodes a product that contributes to the disease caused by the pathogen. Genes that satisfy molecular Koch's postulates are often referred to as virulence factors. The postulates were formulated by the microbiologist Stanley Falkow in 1988 and are based on Koch's postulates.[1]

"The postulates as originally described by Dr. Falkow are as follows:

  1. "The phenotype or property under investigation should be associated with pathogenic members of a genus or pathogenic strains of a species." Additionally, the gene in question should be found in all pathogenic strains of the genus or species but be absent from nonpathogenic strains[citation needed].
  2. "Specific inactivation of the gene(s) associated with the suspected virulence trait should lead to a measurable loss in pathogenicity or virulence." Virulence of the microorganism with the inactivated gene must be less than that of the unaltered microorganism in an appropriate animal model.
  3. "Reversion or allelic replacement of the mutated gene should lead to restoration of pathogenicity." In other words, reintroduction of the gene into the microbe should restore virulence in the animal model.

"For many pathogenic microorganisms, it is not currently possible to apply molecular Koch's postulates to a gene in question. Testing a candidate virulence gene requires a relevant animal model of the disease being examined and the ability to genetically manipulate the microorganism that causes the disease. Suitable animal models are lacking for many important human diseases. Additionally, many pathogens cannot be manipulated genetically" (Wikipedia article on Molecular Koch's Postulates, accessed 2-2020).



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › GENERAL PRINCIPLES of Infection by Microorganisms, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 11781

Percursos na história do livro médico, 1450-1800. Edited by Palmira Fontes da Costa and Adelino Cardoso.

Lisbon: Colibri, 2011.


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY , COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Portugal
  • 11782

Medicina theologica, ou supplica humilde, feita a todos os senhores confessores e directores, sobre o modo de proceder com seus penitentes na emenda dos peccados, principalmente da lascivia, colera, e bebedice.

Lisbon: Antonio Rodrigues Galhardo, 1794.

The first Portuguese work on psychosomatic medicine. The author was a Brazilian who worked in Portugal. Digital facsimile from Wellcomelibrary.org at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Portugal, PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 11783

Tratado da educação fysica dos meninos, para uso da naçaõ Portugueza publicado por ordem da Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa.

Lisbon: Na Officina da Academia Real das Sciencias, 1790.

The first work on pediatrics written by a Brazilian physician. Digital facsimile from Biblioteca digital Luso-Brasileira at this link.



Subjects: PEDIATRICS
  • 11784

Noticia da vida e trabalhos scientificos do medico Bernardino Antonio Gomés.

Memorias da Acad. Real das Sciencias de Lisboa, 2, pt. 1, 3-25, , 1857.

Biography and annotated bibliography of the physician and botanist Gomés senior, written by his son. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Individual Authors, BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals
  • 11785

Medical lives and scientific medicine at Michigan, 1891-1969. Edited by Joel D. Howell.

Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1994.


Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Michigan
  • 11786

Doctors of another calling: Physicians who are best known in fields other than medicine. Edited by David K. C. Cooper.

Lanham, MD: University of Delaware Press & Rowman & Littlefield, 2014.


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works)
  • 11787

The measurement of adult intelligence.

Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1939.

Wechsler made the first attempt to construct an intelligence scale specifically for adults. Until his effort, most intelligence tests used with adults were not standardized for anyone over 18. 

"Discusses the construction and administration of tests of adult intelligence. The nature of intelligence, need for an adult intelligence scale, mental age and I.Q., intelligence classification, as well as mental deficiency and deterioration are examined. The factorial composition of Bellevue Intelligence Scales is discussed. Specifically, chapters on the selection and description of tests, the population used in standardization, limitations and special merits are included. Clinical evaluation of brain damage and the use of the tests in counseling and guidance are also discussed" (PsycINFO Database Record).



Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY › Intelligence Testing
  • 11788

American ornithological bibliography. 4 parts. (Also called "Ornithological bibliography").

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 18781880.

This is an exhaustive work up to time of publications, including scientific references to American birds in publications, the titles of which do not indicate any ornithological material.

[Pt. 1.] Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. Miscellaneous publications, no. 11, appendix, & has title: "Bibliographical appendix" [to his Birds of the Colorado Valley]. "List of faunal publications relating to North American ornithology."

[Pts. 2-3.] Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. Bulletin vol. 5, p. 230-330, 521-1066 & have title: "Second-[third] instalment of American ornithological bibliography."

[Pt. 4.] In Proceedings of the United States National Museum, vol. v, p. 359-477 & has title: "Fourth instalment of ornithological bibliography: being a list of faunal publications relating to British birds."

Digital facsimiles of all the parts are available from the Hathi Trust at this link.

 



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Natural History, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 11789

Field ornithology. Comprising a manual of instruction for procuring, preparing and preserving birds and a check list of North American birds.

Salem, MA: Naturalists' Agency, 1874.

This work incorporated Coues' A check list of North American birds (1873). Coues had the check list portion of this work printed with the versos blank so that users could enter in their own information. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 11790

Key to North American birds containing a concise account of every species of living and fossil bird at present known from the continent north of the Mexican and United States boundary.

Salem, MA: Naturalists' Agency, 1872.

Coues continued to revise and expand this work, putting it through four editions during his lifetime. Digital facsimile of the 1872 edition from the Hathi Trust at this link. The Hathi Trust also makes available digital copies of the later editions, through the posthumous sixth edition (1927).



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 11791

Neurolinguistics: Historical and theoretical perspectives. Translated by Terence MacNamee.

New York: Plenum Press, 1991.


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurolinguistics
  • 11792

Milestones in the history of aphasia: Theories and protagonists.

Abingdon, Oxford & New York: Psychology Press, 2008.


Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Aphasia, Agraphia, Agnosia, NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, Speech, Anatomy and Physiology of › Speech Disorders
  • 11793

Fearful asymmetry: Bouillaud, Dax, Broca, and the localization of language, Paris, 1825-1879.

Montréal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2017.


Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Aphasia, Agraphia, Agnosia, NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurolinguistics
  • 11794

The wounded brain healed: The golden age of the Montreal Neurological Institute, 1934–1984.

Montréal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2016.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Canada, NEUROLOGY › History of Neurology, NEUROSURGERY › History of Neurosurgery
  • 11795

Encyclopedia of plague and pestilence.

New York, 1995.


Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans) › Plague, History of
  • 11796

An entire new treatise on leeches, wherein the nature, properties, and use of that most singular and valuable reptile, is most clearly set forth.

[London]: Printed for and Sold by the Author, 1798.

Digital facsimiel from WellcomeLibrary.org at this link.



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Marine Parasitology, THERAPEUTICS › Bloodletting, ZOOLOGY › Annelidology
  • 11797

A sex starved world.

Los Angeles, CA: The Yale Publishing Company, 1937.

A eugenic utopian fantasy, in which we accompany a doctor in his dream journey to the liberated land of Amor. Pritcher presents an impassioned argument for free universal health care, contraception, no-fault divorce, social clubs, collective childcare facilities, and comprehensive applied sex education. This healthy, community-regulated sexual pedagogy is the author’s cure for any number of societal ills, including venereal disease, mental health issues, child abandonment, impotence, marital violence, gender inequality, infidelity and sundry perversions. Sargent's Utopian Literature in English cites this as A love starved world, and it is possible that the book was published under both titles by the same publisher in 1939.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › Eugenics, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology › Fiction, SEXUALITY / Sexology
  • 11798

Testacea musei Caesarei Vindobonensis, que jussu Mariae Theresiae Ausgustae.

Vienna: Johann Paul Kraus, 1780.

Born was commissioned in 1776, by Maria-Therese, Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, to inventory and arrange the imperal collection that formed the foundation of the imperial museum, now the Naturhistorische Museum in Vienna. Owing to Maria-Therese's death in 1780 this volume was the only one published. Copies were issued with the plates colored or uncolored. Digital facsimile of an uncolored copy from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Malacology
  • 11799

A treatise on the medicinal leech; including its medical and natural history, with a description of its anatomical structure; also, remarks upon the diseases, preservation, and management of leeches.

London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1816.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Marine Parasitology, THERAPEUTICS › Bloodletting, ZOOLOGY › Annelidology